What Would Happen If Everyone On The World Went Vegan?

Exploring the global shift to a vegan diet unveils a complex interplay of environmental, health, social, and ethical implications. Here’s an in-depth look at what such a transformation might entail.

Greenhouse Gases

Impact of a Vegan Shift on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

A global adoption of a vegan diet could have a profound impact on greenhouse gas emissions, particularly those associated with animal agriculture.

Livestock farming is a significant contributor to the emission of methane and nitrous oxide, which are both considerably more potent than carbon dioxide in terms of their greenhouse effect.

The production processes involved in livestock farming, from feed production to animal rearing and processing, contribute a considerable amount of these gases. Studies have shown that animal agriculture is responsible for a substantial percentage of global methane emissions, which are 28 times more potent than carbon dioxide over a 100-year period.

The absence of these emissions in a vegan world would thus play a pivotal role in curbing climate change.

The reduction in methane would be particularly impactful due to its high global warming potential and shorter atmospheric lifetime compared to carbon dioxide. This means that cutting down methane emissions would have a faster and more immediate effect on slowing down climate change.

Challenges in the Transition

However, transitioning to a vegan world would pose significant challenges. The first set of challenges is economic. Animal agriculture is a multi-billion-dollar industry globally, providing livelihoods to millions.

The shift would require the reallocation of economic resources and potentially the development of new industries, such as plant-based protein production, to replace lost jobs and economic activities.

Culturally, meat consumption is deeply ingrained in many societies. Dietary habits are shaped by tradition, culture, and personal preference, making the shift to a vegan diet a complex social challenge.

Public education and gradual cultural shifts would be necessary to encourage a global move towards plant-based diets.

Moreover, there are logistical challenges in terms of ensuring global access to a variety of plant-based foods.

This would require significant changes in food production and distribution systems to ensure that all populations have access to nutritious, affordable, and culturally appropriate vegan food options.

While the potential environmental benefits of a global shift to veganism are substantial, particularly in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the economic, cultural, and logistical challenges present significant hurdles that would need to be addressed through coordinated global efforts and policies.

Human Health: The Impact of a Global Vegan Diet

Benefits for Chronic Disease Prevention and Overall Health

A widespread adoption of a vegan diet would have significant benefits for human health, particularly concerning chronic diseases. Research has consistently shown that a diet rich in plant-based foods is associated with lower risks of various health issues:

  1. Heart Disease: Vegan diets are typically high in fiber, antioxidants, and phytonutrients, while being low in saturated fats. This combination is beneficial for heart health, as it helps in reducing cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and the risk of heart disease. Studies have shown a direct correlation between plant-based diets and reduced incidence of heart disease.
  2. Obesity and Weight Management: Plant-based diets are often lower in calories and fat compared to diets that include meat and dairy products. This can help in maintaining a healthy weight and reducing the risk of obesity, a major risk factor for numerous health conditions, including diabetes and heart disease.
  1. Hypertension: The high potassium and low sodium content in many fruits and vegetables, coupled with the absence of processed meats (which are high in sodium), can contribute to lower blood pressure levels, thereby reducing the risk of hypertension.
  2. Certain Types of Cancer: Diets rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains have been linked to a decreased risk of certain types of cancer, particularly those of the digestive system. The antioxidants and phytochemicals found in these foods play a crucial role in cancer prevention.
  3. Diabetes: Vegan diets can improve blood sugar control and may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. The high fiber content of a plant-based diet improves insulin sensitivity and blood sugar regulation.

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Nutritional Considerations and Challenges

While a vegan diet has numerous health benefits, it requires careful planning to ensure nutritional adequacy, especially in nutrients typically sourced from animal products:

  1. Vitamin B12: Essential for nerve function and blood formation, Vitamin B12 is not naturally found in plant foods. Vegans need to consume fortified foods or supplements to ensure adequate intake.
  2. Iron: Plant-based iron (non-heme iron) is less easily absorbed by the body compared to iron from animal products (heme iron). Vegans should focus on consuming iron-rich plants like lentils, chickpeas, tofu, and spinach, and combine them with vitamin C-rich foods to enhance absorption.
  3. Calcium: Essential for bone health, calcium is abundantly found in dairy products. Vegans can obtain calcium from fortified plant milks, tofu set with calcium, and leafy green vegetables, although the bioavailability may vary.
  4. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Important for heart and brain health, omega-3s are found in fatty fish. Vegans can obtain them from flaxseeds, chia seeds, hemp seeds, and algae-based supplements.
  5. Protein: While a common concern, getting enough protein on a vegan diet is relatively easy with a variety of plant-based protein sources available, such as beans, lentils, tofu, tempeh, and whole grains.
  6. Other Nutrients: Other nutrients of consideration include zinc, iodine, and vitamin D. These can be obtained from fortified foods, sun exposure (for vitamin D), and careful dietary planning.

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A global shift to a vegan diet presents an opportunity to reduce the burden of chronic diseases significantly. However, it requires awareness and education on proper nutritional planning to ensure that all essential nutrients are adequately consumed.

Food Shortages

Efficiency Gain in Plant-Based Production

A global shift to plant-based food production has the potential to significantly address food shortages.

The fundamental advantage of plants as a food source lies in their efficiency in converting sunlight, water, and soil nutrients into edible calories and nutrients.

In contrast, animal-based food production involves feeding plants to animals, which then convert these into meat, milk, or eggs. This process is inherently inefficient, as a substantial amount of the calories and nutrients in feed is used for the animal’s metabolism and growth, rather than being converted into food for humans.

Studies have shown that the calorie loss in feeding crops to animals instead of directly to humans is substantial. (Source)

For instance, only a fraction of the calories in feed grains ends up in the animal products consumed. This inefficiency contributes to a reduction in the overall food availability, exacerbating food scarcity issues, especially in regions heavily reliant on animal agriculture.

Enhancing Global Food Security

By switching to plant-based food systems, we can utilize agricultural land more efficiently. This would increase the volume of food available for human consumption, potentially alleviating global hunger.

This is particularly crucial in areas where food scarcity is prevalent, as plant-based diets require less land and can be more sustainable in diverse environmental conditions. The increased efficiency could also stabilize food prices and make nutritious foods more accessible and affordable for underprivileged populations.

Animal Welfare

Immediate Impact on Animal Exploitation

The cessation of breeding and farming animals for food would bring an immediate end to the systemic exploitation and suffering of billions of livestock animals.

This would be a significant ethical advancement, aligning with increasing public concern over animal welfare. The mass production and industrial farming of animals, often involving inhumane conditions and practices, would cease, marking a monumental shift in our relationship with animals.

Addressing the Fate of Existing Domesticated Animals

However, this shift raises complex challenges regarding the management of existing domesticated animals.

These animals, bred selectively for production purposes, often do not have natural habitats to return to.

Ethical considerations include the humane treatment of these animals in a post-agricultural world.

Ecological considerations involve the impact of these animals on ecosystems if they were to be released.

Practical aspects include the care, management, and potential sanctuary for billions of animals that can no longer be economically sustained. This would require a coordinated global effort to resolve.

Land Use

Opportunities for Reclamation and Biodiversity Enhancement

The land currently utilized for grazing and feed crop production represents a significant proportion of agricultural land.

A vegan world would free up this land, presenting unprecedented opportunities for rewilding and restoring natural ecosystems. This could lead to increased biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, and carbon sequestration, helping combat climate change and habitat loss.

Urban and Peri-Urban Agricultural Development

Furthermore, the transition could revolutionize urban and peri-urban land use. The freed-up agricultural land could support the development of sustainable urban agriculture practices.

These practices not only contribute to local food security but also offer ecological benefits such as urban greening, carbon absorption, and local biodiversity enhancement.

Urban agriculture could be integrated into city planning, creating green spaces that provide fresh produce and serve as community hubs, enhancing the urban environment and resident well-being.

Climate Change

Mitigation through Reduced Emissions and Reforestation

A global shift to veganism could significantly mitigate climate change. Key greenhouse gases like methane and nitrous oxide, primarily emitted through animal agriculture, would see drastic reductions.

Methane, in particular, is over 25 times more potent in trapping heat in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide over a 100-year period. (Source)

Moreover, the cessation of animal farming would open up vast tracts of land, providing opportunities for large-scale reforestation. Trees absorb carbon dioxide, thus reducing atmospheric CO2 levels, and contribute to a cooling effect on the planet.

Enhancing Adaptation and Resilience

Sustainable land management and dietary shifts towards plant-based nutrition can enhance community resilience against climate change impacts.

This includes better management of agricultural lands to prevent soil degradation and maintain soil health, crucial for food security under changing climate conditions. Additionally, a plant-based diet generally requires less water and is more adaptable to varying climatic conditions, reducing vulnerability to droughts, floods, and other extreme weather events.

World Hunger

Potential for Alleviating Global Hunger

The conversion of land from animal agriculture to more efficient plant-based food production could significantly increase the global food supply.

Animal agriculture is extremely resource-intensive and less efficient in terms of calorie output per acre compared to plant-based agriculture.

By reallocating these resources to direct human food production, a substantial increase in global food availability could be achieved, offering a potential solution to world hunger.

Overcoming Distributional Challenges

However, increased food production alone does not automatically solve hunger; effective distribution is key.

Addressing logistical, political, and economic barriers to food distribution is crucial for ensuring that the increased food supply reaches those in need. This includes developing infrastructure for food storage and transportation, overcoming trade barriers, and implementing policies that ensure equitable food access.

Ocean Life

Revitalization of Marine Ecosystems

Eliminating fishing would lead to the recovery of overfished populations and damaged aquatic ecosystems.

This would significantly benefit marine biodiversity and the health of ocean ecosystems.

The cessation of commercial fishing would reduce the pressure on fish populations, allowing them to rebound and ecosystems to restore their natural balance.

Addressing Aquaculture and its Impact

Aquaculture, or fish farming, presents its own set of environmental challenges. These include pollution, disease transfer to wild fish populations, and the use of wild-caught fish for feed.

In a vegan world, the role and impact of aquaculture would need to be reevaluated, especially considering its potential to contribute to sustainable food systems under certain conditions.

Water Use

Dramatic Reduction in Agricultural Water Consumption

Animal agriculture is one of the largest consumers of freshwater. Transitioning to plant-based diets would result in a significant decrease in water usage.

The water efficiency of plant-based foods is generally higher than that of animal products, meaning that less water is needed to produce the same amount of food. This reduction in water use would be especially impactful in water-scarce regions.

Improvements in Water Quality

A global vegan diet would also lead to improvements in water quality. Animal farming is a major contributor to water pollution, with runoff containing nutrients, pathogens, and chemicals from animal waste and feed crops polluting rivers, lakes, and groundwater.

A shift away from animal agriculture would reduce this pollution source, leading to cleaner freshwater ecosystems and reducing the risks to public health and biodiversity.


A global transition to a vegan diet presents a transformative opportunity to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time, including climate change, health issues, food scarcity, and environmental degradation.

However, such a shift requires comprehensive planning and global cooperation to ensure nutritional adequacy, manage ecological transitions, and address socio-economic impacts.